I'm not trying to be snarky. I'll give you the benefit of the doubt and assume you're not a cs/softeng grad that copied all their homework from their friends, and are a non-tech type trying to change career paths.
Things like bfs/dfs are basic algorithms that any textbook will cover, along with all the other basic theoretical stuff you need to practice in problems.
Things like "sliding window" aren't really covered in most books, because it's just "looking through an array"... When people say "we can do this with a sliding window", it's not because there's a cs technique called "sliding window" that is taught in school. You're just solving a problem with a loop or two. Terminology like "sliding window" and "inchworm" just emerge naturally when discussing it. I guess that's similar to "patterns" but... Just do problems and you'll see the patterns. Trying to memorize them is an awful idea. You should know them from experience.
If you're just learning to program and trying to apply specific techniques to problems, I highly recommend HackerRank. You can go by topic, and solve increasingly difficult problems within an area.